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The rectification tower is a tower type gas-liquid contact device for rectification. The components in the mixture have different volatility, that is, the vapor pressure of each component is different at the same temperature, so that the light components (low boilers) in the liquid phase are transferred to the gas phase, while the Heavy components (high boilers) are transferred to the liquid phase to achieve the purpose of separation. Distillation tower is also a kind of mass and heat transfer device which is widely used in petrochemical production.
Classification of plates
The plate tower is a kind of gas-liquid mass transfer equipment that is widely used. It consists of a generally cylindrical shell and a number of trays arranged horizontally at a certain interval. When the plate tower is working normally, the liquid is discharged from the bottom of the tower after passing through each layer of trays from top to bottom under the action of gravity; the gas, driven by the pressure difference, passes through the holes from bottom to top through the openings evenly distributed on the trays. Layers of trays are discharged from the top of the tower, and a certain amount of liquid is stored on each tray. When the gas passes through the liquid layer on the plate, the two phases contact for mass transfer.
There are many types of chemical rectification towers, which are usually classified as follows:
①According to the structure of the tray, there are bubble cap plate, sieve plate, valve plate, mesh plate, tongue plate and so on. The earliest applications in history are bubble cap towers and sieve tray towers. Around the 1950s, valve trays were developed. The most widely used trays are rice sieve and float valve trays, and other different types of trays are also used. Some new trays or improved traditional trays are also being developed and researched.
②According to the gas-liquid two-phase flow mode, there are cross-flow trays and counter-current trays, or downcomer trays and non-downcomer trays. Trays with downcomers are widely used, and they have high mass transfer efficiency and a wide operating range; counter-flow trays without downcomers are also often called through-flow trays. Both gas and liquid phases are The holes on the tray pass through. The tray structure is simple, and the entire tray area is fully utilized. Commonly used are through-flow screens, through-flow grids, and through-flow corrugated plates.
③According to the liquid flow pattern, there are single manifold, double manifold, U-shaped manifold and other manifolds (such as four-manifold, stepped, circular manifold, etc.).
The single-manifold tray is the most widely used. It has a simple structure and a long liquid flow stroke, which is beneficial to improve the efficiency of the tray. However, when the tower diameter or liquid volume is too large, the liquid level gradient on the tray will be larger, resulting in uneven gas-liquid distribution, or overloading of the downcomer, affecting tray efficiency and normal operation.
The double-manifold trays are suitable for large tower diameters and large liquid flow rates. At this time, the liquid is divided into two streams, which can reduce the liquid flow intensity of the overflow weir and the downcomer load, and at the same time, it also reduces the trays. The liquid level gradient above. However, the downcomers of the trays should be placed alternately in the middle or on both sides of the trays, occupying more of the mass transfer area of the trays.
The tray inlet and outlet weirs of the U-shaped manifold are all placed on the same side of the tray. A partition higher than the liquid layer is placed in between. In order to control the liquid flow in a U-shaped flow, thereby extending the liquid flow stroke, this plate type is used in small diameter towers and low liquid volume.
Four-manifold and step-manifold are suitable for larger diameter towers and large liquid volumes.
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